“Children living in the most deprived areas are much more likely to be in poor health, be overweight or obese, suffer from asthma, have poorly managed diabetes, experience mental health problems, and die early. Poor health in infancy, childhood, and young adult life will ultimately mean poor adult health, and this in turn will mean a blighted life and poor economic productivity. The UK is one of the richest countries in the world; we can and must do better, for the sake for each individual, and that of the nation as a whole,” said Professor Neena Modi, President of the RCPCH.
The NHS has called the U.K. the “fat man of Europe” for having the highest obesity rate in Europe.
McKinsey has made clear the multi-billion pound price tag attached to the obesity epidemic in the U.K., saying: “Obesity is a greater burden on the UK’s economy than armed violence, war and terrorism, costing the country nearly £47bn a year – second only to smoking.”
Public Health England has shown that health is at the heart of the U.K.’s growing inequity. If you are poor in this country, your health and nutrition suffer gravely. You’re also more likely to struggle at school because your brain isn’t primed to learn, putting you behind your more affluent peers – and magnifying the split between the learning outcomes and performance of affluent and poor children.
This cycle of poverty serves to widen the gap between rich and poor – and cripple the potentials of children from disadvantaged backgrounds before they’ve even begun.
And yesterday, the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health released a landmark report on The State of Child Health. It brings together a comprehensive list of 25 measures of the health of UK children, ranging from specific conditions such as asthma, diabetes and epilepsy, risk factors for poor health such as obesity and a low rate of breastfeeding, to child deaths. The data provide an “across the board” snapshot of child health and wellbeing in the UK.
Nearly one in five children in the UK is living in poverty, and those suffering the most deprivation, unsurprisingly, experience the worst health. Despite some improvements in the health of UK children over the last decades, there is clear disparity with Europe, and major cause for concern, they say.
The report calls attention to 6 key areas of concern:
- Across England, Scotland and Wales more than one in five children in the first year of primary school are overweight or obese.
- There has been minimal improvement in the prevalence of child overweight and obesity over the past decade.
- Obesity leads to substantially increased risk of serious life-long health problems, including type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and cancer.
- In 2015/2016, 40% of children in England’s most deprived areas were overweight or obese, compared to 27% in the most affluent areas.
- The UK ranks 15 out of 19 Western European countries on infant (under one year of age) mortality and has one of the highest rates for children and young people in Western Europe.
- There is a strong association between deprivation and mortality, for example infant mortality is more than twice as high in the lowest compared with the highest socio-economic groups.
Smoking in pregnancy
- The prevalence of smoking during pregnancy in the UK is higher than in many European countries (for example 5% in Lithuania and Sweden, compared with 19% in Scotland, 16% in Wales and 15% in Northern Ireland).
- Smoking in pregnancy increases the likelihood of death, disability, and disease (for example stillbirth, cot death and the risk of respiratory disease across the life-course).
- There is marked variation in smoking in pregnancy across the UK with a strong association with deprivation; for example in Scotland over a quarter (25.9%) of women in the most deprived areas acknowledged smoking following the birth of their baby, compared with 3.3% in the least deprived areas.
- Breastfeeding in England and Scotland has shown minimal improvement since data recording commenced in 1975, with no improvement over the last five years, and remains lower than many other comparable high-income countries.
- At 6 months, only 34% of babies in the UK are wholly or partially breastfed, compared to 71% in Norway
- Breastfeeding has substantial health benefits for mothers and babies.
- Across the UK, 46% of mothers in the most deprived areas breastfed compared with 65% in the most affluent areas.
- The percentage of 15-year-old children smoking regularly is 6% in England and 8% in Wales and Scotland.
- Smoking continues to be the greatest single cause of avoidable mortality in the UK.
- Starting to smoke during adolescence increases the likelihood of being a life-long smoker.
- The prevalence of child smoking is much higher amongst children from the most deprived areas; for example in Scotland’s most deprived areas, at least 1 in 10 young people are regular smokers.
- In 2013/2014, 13% of 15-year-olds surveyed in Wales, 11% in England and 13.5% in Scotland reported drinking alcohol at least once a week.
- Alcohol abuse continues to be a problem across the social spectrum.
With these in mind, the child health experts, children and young people themselves who were responsible for compiling the report outline their recommendations to improve child health:
- Each UK Government to develop a child health and wellbeing strategy, coordinated, implemented and evaluated across the nation
- Each UK Government to adopt a ‘child health in all policies’ approach
- UK Government to introduce a ban on the advertising of foods high in saturated fat, sugar and salt in all broadcast media before 9pm
- Each UK Government to develop cross-departmental support for breastfeeding; this should include a national public health campaign and a sector wide approach that includes employers, to support women to breastfeed
- An expansion of national programmes to measure the height and weight of infants and children after birth, before school and during adolescence
- A reversal of public health cuts in England, which are disproportionately affecting children’s services
- The introduction of minimum unit alcohol pricing in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland, in keeping with actions by the Scottish Government
- UK Government to extend the ban on smoking in public places to schools, playgrounds and hospitals
- UK Government to prohibit the marketing of electronic cigarettes to children and young people
- National public health campaigns that promote good nutrition and exercise before, during and after pregnancy
“We are calling on each Government across the UK to adopt a ‘child health in all policies approach’. That means that whatever policies are made, from whatever Government department, they must consider the impact on child health,” said Professor Russell Viner, RCPCH Officer for Health Promotion.
The RCPCH says the report is a “springboard for campaigning activity” that will ensure child health is a key political priority.
“If politicians are serious about improving our nation’s health, then they have to think long term. And that means investing in children. It has to be our ambition for the health of the UK’s children to be amongst the best in the world; anything less and we are failing current and future generations,” Professor Viner said.
We at the Jamie Oliver Food Foundation tend to agree. And will be doing all we can to put children first, and at the heart of the policies that keep our society fit for the future – giving every child the opportunity to thrive and contribute.
Let us know if you agree by joining the #FoodRevolution. We’re on Twitter & Facebook and hope you’ll join us there too!
Read the RCPCH’s report here.